Biology 146, section 100, CRN 10347                                                               Spring 2003

Class Times:  Tu, Th  8-9:15 in 2-211 (lecture)

                              Tu    9:30 – 11:20  in 2-207  (lab)

Instructor:                Dr. Dorothy R. Martin

Office:                        2-265

Office Phone            (309) 796-5243


Office Hours:           To be Announced

College e-mail:



Black Hawk College provides the environment and resources for individuals to become life-long learners.



Score of 43 or above on ASSET Reading Exam or completion of Reading 098 with a grade of “C” or higher and completion of Biology 145 with a grade of “C” or higher are required. 



Continuation of Biology 145.  Systematic study of cardiovascular, lymphatic, immune, respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive systems.  Fluids, electrolytes, acid-base balance, metabolism, and human development are also studied.  3 lecture hours; 2 lab hours per week.    4 credit hours IAI:  CLS 904, NURS 904


Biology 146 (Anatomy-Physiology II) is a continuation of Biology 145.  In Biology 145, you learned the levels of organization of the human body, the functioning of cells, as well as the anatomy and physiology of the skin, the skeletal system, the muscular system, the nervous system and the endocrine system.  You will continue to investigate the interrelationships between body parts and body functions by studying the anatomy and physiology of the remaining systems of the body – cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, urinary, digestive and reproductive. In addition, the topics of fluids, electrolytes, acid-base balance, metabolism and development will be explored.  You will continue to look at how you are put together and how all of your various parts function – both individually and in groups.   I think this will be one of the most interesting and most challenging courses you ever take. 



By the end of the course, the student will be able to:

ü      Illustrate the importance and relevance of anatomy and physiology in both their professional and everyday lives.

ü      Identify major organs and tissues of each of the systems studied in this course.

ü      Describe the anatomy of the blood cells, heart, blood vessels, respiratory system, urinary system, digestive system and reproductive system.

ü      Describe cardiovascular physiology as it relates to the blood, heart and blood vessels.

ü      Explain the process of immunity.

ü      Describe pulmonary ventilation, gas transport, gas exchange and control of respiration.

ü      Integrate the endocrine and neural functions of the digestive system.

ü      Explain renal physiology, including glomerular filtration, reabsorption, secretion and countercurrent mechanism.

ü      Explain fluid, electrolyte and acid-base balance.

ü      Describe the physiology of human reproduction and development.



At the end of the course the student will be able to:

ü      Demonstrate skills in microscopy.

ü      Describe the histology of blood cells, blood vessel walls, the lungs and trachea, the nephron and the wall of the digestive tract.

ü      Describe the histology of male and female reproductive structures.

ü      Identify early developmental stages.

ü      Identify major organs of the cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive systems using models, the human cadaver, sheep hearts, sheep kidneys and cat dissection.

ü      Demonstrate dissection skills.

ü      Investigate the physiology of the cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive and urinary systems.

ü      Explain cardiovascular and respiratory physiology using computer simulations.



            Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology, 5th Edition by Martini, Frederic

            Human Anatomy & Physiology Lab Manual, 7th Edition by Marieb, Elaine

            An Introduction to Chemistry for Biology Students, 7th Ed. by Sackheim, G.



Class attendance is expected.  Missing a class, or many classes, will sabotage your success in this class because we will move rapidly and cover large blocks of material at each class meeting.  Regular attendance is critical.  You are responsible for any and all materials and assignments you may have missed.  Please contact me should you have to miss class so you can determine what material and assignments you missed.



You are responsible for initiating a “drop” or official withdrawal from this class.  Please be aware that if you do not officially withdraw from this class, then I will assign you a final grade.  I do not automatically withdraw a student from this class.  Please contact me if you have any questions regarding this policy.



In the classroom, I expect students

            To be sensitive to other’s feelings and be respectful of others.

            To listen when others speak, including the instructor.

            To be on time and wait for the instructor to dismiss the class.

            To work efficiently in groups when assigned a task.

Smoking, eating and drinking are not allowed in the classroom.

Please turn off cell phones and pagers during class.



All exams are scored on a percentage scale:

            100-90% = A; 89-80% = B; 79-70% = C; 69-60% = D; 59-0% = F

Seventy-five percent (75%) of your final grade comes from lecture (hour exams, final exam, quizzes, papers, reports, journals and other assignments) while twenty-five (25%) of your final grade comes from laboratory (lab exams, quizzes, reports, worksheets and other assignments).  No test scores or final grades are curved.



There will be four or five lecture exams in addition to a Final Exam.  These exams will consist of objective questions (multiple choice, matching, true-false, etc.) and subjective questions (short answer essay).  Tentative exam dates are on the class schedule.  Any changes in exam dates will be announced.  The Final Exam may be a comprehensive exam.  Lecture exams are usually worth 50 to 75 points while the final exam is usually worth 100 to 150 points.






Students are encouraged to notify me prior to the time of a scheduled exam that they will be absent from the exam.  Students are responsible for arrangements of make up exams.  Make-up exams should be completed as soon as possible (within a week).  I can understand the need for one make-up exam.  After that, arrangements become much more difficult.  Please avoid missing exams.  Make-up exams will be different from the scheduled exam and may be all essay exams.



Throughout this course, I expect students to:

ü      Demonstrate comprehension of terminology, concepts, principles, and theories of anatomy-physiology in written work, class discussions, and on quizzes and exams.

ü      Demonstrate skills in microscopy, dissection, & other laboratory procedures.

ü      Apply critical thinking in problem solving situations.

ü      Gather, organize and interpret information.

ü      Search for examples that illustrate the human body is a dynamic, adapting machine.



There may be several writing assignments during this course.  These assignments are a good way to explore special interest areas in anatomy-physiology.  More information on these assignments will be handed out at a later date.

There will also be extra reading assignments in the form of articles from magazines and/or journals.  You may be asked to utilize these articles in a writing assignment or they may be used as a portion of an exam.  Again, more information on this type of assignment will be handed out at a later date.



Too often there are gaps between what was taught and what has been learned.  Often students and faculty do not realize that learning is not occurring until an exam is given and the results are very disappointing.  What is needed in the classroom is a continuous flow of accurate information on student learning so that both faculty and students can monitor learning.  Various forms of classroom assessments will be used in this course to monitor learning.  These assessments are never graded, are always anonymous, and focus on how much learning is occurring.  Some possible examples include: “Background Knowledge Probes” to determine starting points and levels of instruction, “Identification of Misconceptions /Preconceptions” to discover knowledge that may hinder learning, “The One Minute Paper” in which students identify things they are learning and “The Muddiest Point” which focuses on those points that are least clear.

I also ask students to take each exam and quiz after it has been graded, to look at those questions that were missed and try to determine why they chose the answer they did.  Often this type of analysis reveals gaps in studying that had gone unnoticed.

The goal of assessment of student learning is to provide information to both faculty and students that can be used to improve learning in the classroom.



Be sure to check the current Black Hawk College Student Handbook for important information about college processes, policies and procedures.  You can access the student handbook at the following web address:

If you do not have access to the Internet, copies of the student handbook are available in various offices across the campus.



If you have a disability for which you are or may be requesting an accommodation, please contact your instructor and the Office of Disability Services at 796-5949/792-5903 (TTY) on the Quad-Cities Campus or call (309) 852-6222 on the East Campus as early as possible during the semester.







I.                    CARDIOVASCULAR:  THE BLOOD

A.                 Plasma and Formed Elements

B.                 Hemopoiesis - Erythropoiesis

C.                Clotting Mechanisms



A.                 Anatomy of the heart

1.                  Pericardium and Heart Wall

2.                  Chambers, Valves, Fibrous skeleton

B.                 Blood Supply to the Heart

C.                Cardiac Muscle Tissue

D.                Conduction System of the Heart

E.                 The Cardiac Cycle

F.                 Cardiodynamics

1.                  Factors controlling stroke volume

2.                  Factors affecting heart rate



A.                 Anatomy of Blood Vessels

1.                  Arteries

2.                  Capillaries

3.                  Veins

B.                 Cardiovascular Physiology

1.                  Pressure; Resistance

2.                  Circulatory Pressures

3.                  Arterial Blood Pressure

4.                  Capillary Exchange

5.                  Venous Blood Pressure; Venous Return

C.                Cardiovascular Regulation

1.                  Blood Flow – Autoregulation; Neural Control

2.                  Control of Blood Pressure

3.                  Hormones and Blood Pressure

D.                Systemic Circulation: Arteries and Vein

E.                 Pulmonary circulation

F.                 Fetal Circulation




A.                 Organization of the Lymphatic System

1.                  Lymphatic Vessels and tissue

2.                  Lymphoid Organs

B.                 Non-specific Defenses

1.                  Physical Barriers and Cells

2.                  Interferons; Complement

3.                  Inflammation

C.                Specific Resistance –The Immune Response

1.                  T-Cells and Cell-mediated Immunity

2.                  B-Cells and Antibody-mediated Immunity

3.                  Primary and Secondary Responses


V.                 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

A.                 Organization and Functions of Respiratory System

B.                 Upper Respiratory System

C.                Larynx, Trachea, Bronchi and Lungs

D.                Pleural Cavities and Membranes

E.                 Pulmonary Ventilation

1.                  Gas Laws

2.                  Inhalation and Exhalation

3.                  Pulmonary Volumes

F.                 Gas Exchange at the Respiratory membrane

1.                  Dalton’s Law; Partial Pressures

2.                  Diffusion at the Respiratory Membrane

G.                Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Transport

H.                 Control of Respiration

1.                  Respiratory Centers of the Brain

2.                  Voluntary control of Respiration


VI.               URINARY SYSTEM

A.                 Anatomy of Kidney

B.        The Nephron

C.                Urine Formation

1.                  Glomerular filtration

2.                  Tubular secretion and reabsorption

3.                  Countercurrent Mechanism

D.                Regulation of Urine Concentration and Volume





A.                 Basic Concepts pertaining to Fluid and Electrolyte Balance

B.                 Regulatory Hormones

C.                Fluid exchange with environment

D.                Fluid Shifts

E.                 Sodium Balance

F.                 Potassium Balance

G.                Calcium Balance

H.                 Acid-Base Balance

1.                  Buffers and Buffer Systems

2.                  Respiratory Compensation

3.                  Renal Compensation

4.                  Disturbances of Acid-Base Balance



A.                 Histological Organization of Digestive Tract

B.                 Oral Cavity, Salivary Glands, Pharynx, Esophagus;  Swallowing

C.                Stomach — Anatomy, Secretions and Regulation of Gastric Activity

D.                Small & Large Intestines—Anatomy, Secretions, & Regulation of Activity

E.                 Liver, Gall Bladder, Pancreas

F.                 Absorption of Nutrients


IX.               METABOLISM

A.                 Energy and metabolism

B.                 Carbohydrate metabolism

C.                Lipid metabolism

D.                Protein metabolism

E.                 Absorptive and Postabsorptive States


X.                 REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

A.                 Male Reproductive System

1.                  Anatomy of Organs

2.                  Physiology of Male Reproduction

B.                 Female Reproductive System

1.                  Anatomy of Organs

2.                  Physiology of Female Reproduction



A.                 Fertilization; Morula; Blastocyst; Implantation

B.                 Placenta; Germ Layers; Parturition



Tentative Lecture Schedule


Spring 2003


DATE                                        TOPIC                                                  ASSIGNMENT

Week 1

Jan. 14                       Blood:  Composition, Hemopoiesis                      Chapter 19

Jan. 16                       Clotting Mechanisms                                                            Chapter 19


Week 2

Jan. 21                       Heart  Anatomy; Coronary Circulation                   Chapter 20

                                    Cardiac Muscle Tissue

Jan. 23                       Conduction    System; Cardiac Cycle                               Chapter 20                            

Week 3

Jan. 28                       Cardiodynamics                                                                    Chapter 20

Jan. 30                       EXAM I  (Blood & Heart)


Week 4

Feb. 4             Anatomy of Blood Vessels                                                Chapter 21

Feb. 6             Cardiovascular physiology and

                                    Capillary Exchange                                                   Chapter 21


Week 5

Feb. 11                       Blood Pressure & Blood Flow                                 Chapter 21

Feb. 13                       Lymphatic System                                                 Chapter 22


Week 6

Feb. 18                       Non-specific Defenses                                                         Chapter 22

Feb. 20                       EXAM II (Blood Vessels/Lymphatics)


Week 7
Feb. 25                       Immunity                                                                               Chapter 22

Feb. 27                       Immunity (finish)                                                      Chapter 22

                                    Respiratory System:  Anatomy                            Chapter 23

Week 8

Mar. 4             Gas Exchange; O2 Transport                                  Chapter 23

Mar. 6             EXAM III  (Immunity; Respiration)


                                    SPRING BREAK – MARCH 10-14


Week 9

Mar. 18                       CO2 Transport; Control of Respiration                   Chapter 23

Mar. 20                       Urinary System  Kidney/Nephron                         Chapter 26


Week 10

Mar. 25                       Filtration, Reabsorption, Secretion                         Chapter 26

Mar. 27                       EXAM IV  (Resp; Urinary)


Week 11

Apr. 1              Fluid & Electrolyte Balance

                                    Fluid Balance                                                                        Chapter 27

Apr. 3              Electrolyte Balance                                                   Chapter 27


Week 12

Apr.  8             Acid-Base Balance                                                  Chapter 27

Apr. 10                       EXAM V (Urinary; Fluids, Acid-Base)


Week 13

Apr. 15                               Digestive System:  Overview of Anatomy

                        Mastication, Swallowing, Peristalsis                      Chapter 24

Apr. 17                       Endocrine Control of Digestion                               Chapter 24


Week 14

Apr. 22                       Absorption; Elimination                                                        Chapter 24

Apr. 24                       Metabolism:  Overview; Glycolysis,

                                    TCA Cycle, Electron Transport                                Chapter 25

                                    TAKE-HOME EXAM


Week 15

Apr. 29                       Male Reproductive System                                              Chapter 28

May 1              Female Reproductive System                             Chapter 28


Week 16

May 6              Development                                                                       Chapter 29


May 8-14                    FINAL EXAM Week





Spring 2003                                                                         Tuesday Laboratory


Date                           Topic                                                 Assignment


Jan. 14                       The Blood                                                      Exercise 29

                                                                                                            Review Sheets p. 601-602  


Jan. 21                       The Heart                                                       Exercise 30  

                                                                                                            Review Sheets: p. 607-611


Jan. 28                       LAB EXAM I              


Feb. 4                         Cardiovascular Physiology              Exercise 33A

                                    Cardiovascular Dynamics                Exercise 33B (Computer)

                                                                                                            Review Sheets: p. 627-630


Feb. 11                       Cardiovascular System of Cat        Dissection Ex. 4


Feb. 18                       Cardiovascular System of Cat        Dissection Ex. 4


Feb. 25                                   LAB EXAM II


Mar. 4             Respiratory Physiology                                Exercise 37A

                                    Computer Simulation                                    Exercise 37B

                                    Respiratory System of Cat               Dissection Ex. 6

                                                                                                            Review Sheets: p.639-642


Mar.11                                    SPRING BREAK


Mar. 18                       Urinary Anatomy                                            Exercise 40

                                    Urinary System of Cat                                  Dissection Ex. 8

                                                                                                            Review Sheet: p. 662


Mar 25                        Urinalysis                                                       Exercise 41A

                                    Renal Dynamics (Physioex)             Exercise 41B


Apr. 1                          LAB EXAM III                      


Apr. 8              Digestive System Physiology                      Exercise 39A

                                    Digestive System Anatomy             Exercise 38

                                    Digestive System of the Cat                        Dissection Ex. 7

                                                                                                            Review Sheets: p.652-653


Apr. 15                       Topic to be announced                                                        


Apr. 22                       The Reproductive System                Exercise 42


Apr. 29                       Development                                     Exercise 44


May 6                          Comprehensive Lab Final


TEXTBOOK:                        Human Anatomy & Physiology Laboratory Manual,

 7th Edition, by Elaine Marieb

INSTRUCTOR:                    Dr. Dorothy R. Martin

OFFICE HOURS:    To be announced

PHONE:                                (309) 796-5243





Each laboratory session is two hours in length.


The Blood                A laboratory session that studies the anatomy of human blood cells, abnormal cells and blood typing.  Blood slides and simulation of blood typing are used.


Heart Anatomy        A laboratory session is spent dissecting the sheep heart to gain a better understanding of the structures found in the heart.  Models of human hearts are also used.


Cardiovascular System                Two to three laboratory sessions are spent in the dissection of the major arteries and veins of the cat.  Blood vessels of the head, neck, thorax, upper and lower limbs and abdomen are dissected out and identified.  A human cadaver prosection is also used to demonstrate these vessels in humans.


Cardiovascular Physiology   In this laboratory session  students learn the skill of auscultation and how to take blood pressures and pulse rates.  Computer simulations are used to investigate EKG’s, blood pressure, resistance and blood flow.


Anatomy of Respiratory, Urinary and Digestive Systems  Three laboratory sessions are spent continuing the dissection of the cat in order to identify the major organs of these three systems.  Sheep Kidneys are also dissected and models of human kidneys are used.  The human cadaver prosection is used to demonstrate these organs in the human body.  Histology slides of the lungs, trachea, nephron and digestive tract wall are also studied.


Respiratory Physiology; Urinalysis                  A laboratory session is spent using spirometers to measure respiratory volumes and a number of tests are performed on simulated normal and pathological urine samples. 


Digestive Physiology                    In this laboratory session, students perform experiments that demonstrate digestion of carbohydrates, fats and proteins.


Reproductive System and Development                     Two laboratory sessions are used for the study of the anatomy of the organs of the reproductive system and the identification of various developmental stages.